VOL. 4, No. at


CopyrigutT, 1881,

New Design of Corliss Engine.

The accompanying engravings represent two views of an improved style of Corliss engine, as now built by Wm. Munzer, 509

and 515 First avenue, New York. The bed plate is novel in design, compact, and of a form unsur- passed for strength.

Unlike the proportions of most stationary engines, this one has the greatest amount of metal at the crank end of the bed. The base, resting upon the founda- tion, is very broad, and forms a support which offers a firm resist- ance to all twisting strains. The cylinder end of bed is designed so that the strains between the cylinder and shaft are equally distributed, both in the vertical and horizontal planes. The por- tion of bed to which the guides are attached is semi-circular in section, the side opposite the main bearing being continued in a di- rect line, coinciding with the strain to the extreme crank end of bed. The guide bars are of the style commonly known as the locomo- tive guide.

The lower bars rest upon lugs, cast upon the bed, the upper bars being supported by blocks placed between. Both upper and lowe bars can be quickly removed for repairs, or adjustment, when necessary,

The bars are of the trussed form, and are finished on their edges as well as their faces. The cross head is very large, having a long and wide bearing upon the bars. The pin is of the best hammered steel, having a planed fit in the cross head, and held in place bya large central steel pin.

By slipping out the central pin, the main pin may be removed for re-turning,

The crank end of. the connecting rod is forged solid, andis provided With an improved adjustable

wedge block, for taking up the wear. The cross head end having a strap, the

NEW YORK, APRIL 2, 1881.

ping the eccentric back upon the shaft. The governor is of a design, practice, is very sensitive, being prevented from too sudden changes by the application -class work. The power is

of an oil cylinder and piston.


surfaces are large, which, in

Sige canteneet ——e : : . : = 2 =



calculated for durability ; taken to supply the customer with first-

The engine, from which the




New York, N. Y.,

accompanying engravings were

Front View OF MUNZER’S Coriiss ENGINE.

taken from the governor by

wear at both ends may be taken up in the sible.

same direction,

clearance of piston.

The valve gear is the regular Corliss pattern, though in detail has been constructed for a high rate of speed.

The steam and exhaust ports, being proportioned for 600 feet piston travel per minute, insure a high initial pressure of steam compared with boiler press- ure, and no back pressure ut the exhaust. By using the dise crank, it isa very easy matter to remove the brasses from the main pil- low block, as the weight may be taken off by driy- ing wooden wedges under the edge of dise and slip-

thus keeping the rod al- Ways the same length, also equalizing the moving parts are of steel,

All rods, bolts and pins attached to the

reamed to standard gauges.


mechanism, calculated to produce the least friction pos-

and the holes

Rie a

a Teri



An International Exhibition, receive the fullest support of the National Government, will probably beheld in Buenos ¢TY:- The wearing Ayres next year,



and every care is

made, is a’ the

is basement, lighted, and is intended for heavy machin- The first story will be 18 feet, andthe

which will



reached. This is 150x2


{ $3.00 per Annum.



and the engine is well New Building of the Massachusetts Chari- table Mechanic Association.

recent issue we called attention to

new building in course of erection in

Boston by the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, in which to hold their annual in- dustrial exhibitions. This week, we present a view of the building aus it will look when completed, also (on the second page) a ground floor plan. The building is erecting on Huntington avenue, corner of West Newton street, and will be completed season for holding their four- teenth exhibition, from the Ist of September to the 81st of October next. The whole edifice includes one grand hall, three exhibition rooms, an art gallery, administra refectory and other convenient rooms for the

in ample

tion apartments,

transaction of association busi ness. The whole structure has a frontage of 598 feet on Hunting ton avenue, and about 317 feet on West Newton and Gloucester streets. Red brick, laid in dark mortar, form the walls, which are capped with slated roofs. Walls are very thick (from two to five feet), and the style of architecture will be ‘* Renaissance,”’ with some variations. The administration structure at the easterly end con- tains the grand entrance and staircase halls in an octagonal tower 90 feet high, which forms a conspicuous feature. This part of the building has a 15 foot base ment, and three stories above it. In the third story is the associa- tion hall, which will be fitted up for private theatricals, balls, lec- tures, concerts and the like. It is reached by an elevator, and has toilet rooms and committee rooms connected with it.

Passing through the octagonal hall and corridor (18 feet wide), in which are located turnstiles, as

14'’x30’, and, as will be seen, is furnished at the Centennial, the main exhibition hall with the Siebert lubricator.

70 feet, with a

15 feet high, which is well

15 feet. Two elevators will run from the ground floor to the second floor, and there are several broad flights of steps. The art gallery, on the second floor, is 50x90 feet, with a height of 24 feet. Adjoining this room is another, 45x72 feet, and 19 feet high, with top lights, for the display of graphs. Six studios, aver- aging 22x30 feet, line the northern wall, having both side and skylights. After the next exhibition, these will be leased to art- ists. A chimney, 11 feet square, and 110 feet high, is so constructed that the





‘[Aprit 2, 188]

. |

of good quality and wel] worked, they will hold q ve fine edge.

| rucible steel is made by melting in a crucible. either Blister steel 0; Blister steel and wrought iron; or wrought iron and charcoal; or wroucht iron and scrap steel: or in short, a great Variety of mixtures, which depeng on the quality of stee] to




be produced.

Crucible steel can be applied to any purpose for | which steel is used. Gep. | erally, it is better than any other steel—that is to say, Crucible steel made py


we G


melting Blister steel, and tempered to suit by mix. ing iron of the same grade in the crucible, is always better than German, or Shear steel made from the same blister.

Bessemer steel is made by blowing air through melted cast iron, thus burning silicon and carbon out of thecastiron. After the silicon and carbon are


waste heat from the boilers will assist ven- tilation at various points. There will be four boilers, and solid granite foundations will be provided for engines that furnish the power, and for those that will be en- tered for competitive trials. It seems that the association is determined that their en- gine tests shall not fail by reason of poor foundations,

The ‘‘Grand Hall” is reached from the exhibition hall, through 27 wide doorways. It is also reached by a broad granite stair- way from Huntington avenue. The audi- ence room is 140 x 190 feet, besides the stage recess, 84x 30 feet. rounded on three sides with two gulleries, the lower one sloping, and the other level. When exhibitions are notin progress, this hall is intended to be used for concerts, opera, military drills, festivals, or for any like purpose. In the rear of the great hall are about 20 chorus dressing, toilet and other rooms, some of them 80 feet square. There is also a basement hall, about 55 x 80 feet, and 20 feet high, for rehearsals, when in use for exhibition purposes. The cistern under the great hall has about 10,000 gal- lons capacity, and will contain water for the fountains, cataracts, ete. It will be supplied mainly from rainfall on the two acres of roof.

The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic

Association was organized March 15th, 1795. Its formation was brought about by |

the trouble the master mechanics of Boston had with apprentices to the several crafts. Besides protection to its members, benefi- cence was one of its chief objects. During the last 21 years, $72,500 has been disbursed for sick and disabled associates; $22,800 to families of deceased members, and $22,900 for the support of schools, libraries, lec- tures and technical education.


with better results than ever before.

The exhibition, which opens the first of next September, will doubtless be much greater in its scope and beneficial effects than any of its predecessors. cilities are provided for placing heavy ma- chinery and goods quickly and inexpen- sively. The machinery department, which really is the most interesting portion of an industrial exhibition, not only to mechanics, but to the people of other avocations, will be extra large and well planned, both as to motive power, light and convenience. Spe- cial regard will be had for the grouping of mechanical exhibits, so as to be in- spected in the most satisfactory manner. Medals of gold, silver and bronze, also

diplomas, will be awarded to successful | }

competitors. The railroads terminating in Boston have agreed to transport, at regu- lar rates, at the risk of the owner both ways, articles of merchandise, machinery,

The grand hall is sur-

The best fa- |

|ete., intended for the exbibition, and, upon ‘receiving satisfactory evidence that the |same have actually been on exhibition, and

| . This definition still applies, but in addi- | tion, the term cast-steel applies to all of the | products of the Crucible, the Bessemer Con- |verter, and the Open Hearth furnace,

‘the ownership unchanged, will refund all! whether such products are too low in car-

freight charges”upon such goods. Contri- butions may be sent on and after the 15th ‘day of August next. George B. Hanover, Mechanics’ Building, 40 Bedford St., Bos- ton, will receive and enter applications for space. No charge is made for entries or space occupied. Charles W. Slack is chair- man of the executive committee, and will send a copy of the exhibition prospectus to any one interested.

Different Varieties of Steel. | The following correct definitions of the | different varieties of steel by William Met- calf of the Crescent Steel Works, Pittsburgh, Pa., are published in a circular by the Dex- |ter Spring Co., of Hulton, Pa. | Originally the word steel was applied | only to iron which contained such quantities | of carbon as would cause hardening when | the red-hot iron was cooled suddenly.

Thirteen | exhibitions have been held, all producing a | The new building will enable the | association to carry on its excellent work |

| } }


/bon to harden, or ‘not. The steels that are | not cast steel, are known in the market as

Blister steel, German steel, Shear steel and | Double Shear steel.

Blister steel is made by heating bars of wrought iron, bedded in charcoal, in hermet- ically sealed chambers. The carbon of the | charcoal penetrates the hot iron, converting

it into a crystalline mass of crude steel; large blisters rise on the surfaces of the bars, giving the name Blister steel to this | product.


German steel is Blister steel rolled down ,into bars. It is used mainly for tires and common springs, and is being rapidly su- perseded by the cheaper grades of cast steel. Shear steel is made by taking a high heat on Blister steel and hammering it thorough- ly. Double Shear steel is made by cutting up Shear steel, piling it, heating it and then hammering again. The best Shear steel must be made from the best wrought iron, The Shear steels are very useful on account of their toughness, and the ease with ' which they can be welded to iron, and when

See" Edge View

7 HE


Scale. 13 in. = 1 foot.

ow ae ae oe oe oh

Equiniprium CHucK,

'all is melted.

' che table.

| burned out, melted Spie-

) | geleisen, or Ferro-manga- _ nese, is added to the charge. The carbon in

the Spiegel recarbonizes

the steel to the desired point, and the man- ganese unites with and removes the oxygen which the air used leaves in the steel.

Open Hearth steel is made by melting, in a very hot furnace, a charge of pig iron; to this melted iron, which iscalled the ‘‘ bath,” is added either wrought iron or scrap steel, or iron ore, and the whole is kept hot until The wrought iron, or scrap, or ore, reduce the carbon and silicon in the bath to such proportions as are desired in the steel.

Bessemer and Open Hearth steel are much alike in quality. They are used mainly for rails, boiler plates, ship plates, bridge and other structural purposes, and machinery. The better qualities are also used largely for springs. The best spring steel, like the best tool steel, is simply that which is made from the best material. Quality of material, chemically speaking, being equal, the best spring steel is that which is made from cru- cible cast steel, as the crucible process is less crude than either of the others.

——_-—— ae —_—— Pullman’s Improved Car Replacer.

Many devices have been tried for the pur pose of replacing cars upon the track, and frequently great damage has been done to the track and body of a car, because of the carelessness of men or the inefficiency of the apparatus used to replace the derailed sar. One of the most successful pieces of apparatus that has come to our notice is shown by the engraving presented here with.

These replacers are made of the best cast steel, and are equally well adapted for re placing locomotives, tenders and cars.

They are easily applied to the rail, being taken apart by simply removing two keys held by small chains, as shown.

They are made as light as is consistent with the required strength, in order for ex- peditious handling.

They are calculated to accomplish the de- sired object with as little strain to the cal or engine as possible. These advantages will readily suggest themselves to railway men.

The Pullman replacers are made and fur- nished by James Beggs & Co., sole manu- facturers, 8 Dey St., New York. tall esicitigies

Equilibrium Chuck.

By F. G. Woopwarp.

The chuck shown in the cut herewith 1s to be used upon the upright drill table for holding articles which require a nice cen-

tral hole such as blanks for gears, small

wheels, pulleys, etc. It is not designed to supersede the universal chuck and lathe, but as an auxiliary to extend the utility of the upright drilling machine.

It consists of two light rings A and B, each having two opposite prongs. The ring A, rests. upon the drill table (C, its prongs resting against two studs D, set in The upper ring B, has three set


ht r ty nd to

nd to the of led

of re ast ing eys

ent ex-

de- sal ges


ur- nu-



2en- nall ned the, y of

B, The



Aprit 2, 1881.]

screws for holding the articles to be reamed, its prongs resting against two studs Z, set in the lower ring at right angles to thestuds D, in the table. One of the set screws may be provided with a cam and handle, as shown, to facilitate the changing of the articles to be reamed. There may be two or three sizes of the top ring to accommodate various

sizes of work, the same set screws serving |

for each size, of course.

It is essential that the articles to be reamed should be accurately centered either by the moulder, by careful coreing, or by the ma- chinist, by careful laying out and drilling. The set screws must be so adjusted that the article to be reamed shall be held nearly central in the top ring, so that the ring shall be free to adjust itself as indicated by the arrows.

It will be seen that this device is thor- oughly self-adjusting and self-balanced, and relieves the spindle and tool from all side strain.

\stability. The cross-head guides are cast in

|one piece with the cylinder. Boring of the cylinder and guides is performed at one set- iting, thus insuring perfect alignment. The | piston and its rod are entered from the under ‘side. The flat slide valve is balanced and | operated by an eccentric of variable throw, | which is controlled by a governor revolving with the crank shaft. When it is necessary to run the engine in either direction, ahead or back, a simple arrangement is applied for moving a single eccentric across the shaft, and is operated by a lever. Engines having substantially the same improved feature in construction can be made horizontal, and

are peculiarly adapted for the compound |

cylinder principle of construction. This engine is submitted to the attention of those | who are engaged, or about to engage, in the manufacture of steam engines, by the in- ventor, John Fish, 10 Pine Street, New York. ——_—_ - > —____—

| Preserving Mechanical Memoranda.

Before using this chuck, the drilling ma- |

chine should be tested to see whether the | This |

table sets squarely with the spindle. may be done by fixing a finger to the end of


It is the natural desire of every ambitious

the spindle long enough to sweep around | young mechanic, just entering on the study near the margin of thetable. If the finger| and practice of his business, to make a col- maintains the same distance from the sur-| lection of notes or memoranda of useful face of the table at all points of its‘revolu-| facts and data, which come to his notice

tion, the machine is correct. This device is not entirely new, yet it may be new to some.

Those who have an {upright drill standing idle, while their lathes are busy, may use such a tool to great advantage.


Fish’s Improved Vertical Engine.

The connecting rod upon a steam engine of about three times the length of the piston stroke has been found to give better results, causing less wear and tear to an engine, besides producing an easier motion than when it is made shorter. The action of the steam in the cylin- deris also more uniform for the back and forward stroke.

The vertical engine herewith illustrated shows this feature of a connecting rod, seven times the length of the crank, in anew, simple and eminently practical shape. It will be noticed that the connecting rod is formed of two straight bars, attached rigidly at one end to the cross- head pin, forming a single jour- nal, while, at the opposite ends, they are attached to a single

crank-pin box working upon a single crank pin. This pin can either be forged on double throws or cheeks, or may be shrunk into cast discs, as is usually done where.a short crank pin is used. The box is chambered out in the center, so as to give any desired

Instead of using a bound blank book for the notes, a number of detached leaves or cards, are used.

These cards must be of convenient uni- form size, and can be of ordinary writing paper (or light card-board if preferred) ar- ranged in a suitable box.

Any number of cards may be provided at the start, say 500 or 1,000, and others ob- tained when these are used up, and a larger box substituted if necessary.

The cards, placed in the box fitted to re-

‘ceive them, end up, are then divided into



} =A SSSsssJ



through the various sources of reading

| practical experience, or verbal advice of

amount of bearing to the pin; this chamber, | those further advanced in the trade.

at the same time, forms a receptacle for the oil. In this method of constructing the connecting rod (although it is formed of two rods) it virtually acts as a single rod, as there is only one journal for each, and when lost motion is taken up, it is precisely as in a single rod. this design is that the shaft with the crank

discs can be brought close to the cylinder, |

the distance between the throws or discs being such that access can be had to the

Another advantage of |

The problem is to begin such a collection in a systematic manner, which will admit of unlimited additions, and still be orderly, and indexed so that reference may be had to any subject as may be desired. Generally such notes are begun in a blank book, which eventually proves too small, and the notes at first inserted in alphabetical order, are finally crowded in anywhere where there is

| room without regard to system, so that it is

only the owner’s entire familiarity with the

piston, and it may be withdrawn from the| book that enables him to find any particu-

cylinder between the discs without disturb- ing the shafts. The advantages of this mode of constructing the connecting rod, over some other methods heretofore adopted in this type of engine, is that the lower cross bar, with its attached butt end, is dispensed with, thus reducing the cost of the rod one- half, and shortening the distance between the end of the cylinder and the center of the shaft more than the length of the stroke. This procedure also reduces the strain upon the rod, and addipg considerably to its

lar memorandum he may desire to consult, while a stranger to the volume, is quite at sea in his researches, and thus the work be- comes of little value to posterity unless en- tirely re-written or indexed.

To those who make a practice of keeping useful memoranda (and all progressive me- chanics and engineers should do so), I de- sire to submit a method which was first sug- gested by the system adopted for catalogue- ing some of the large public libraries.

The proposed method is as follows:

twenty-six divisions, corresponding to the |

letters of the alphabet, by means of colored cards projecting a little above the others, and marked with the letters in alphabetical order, classifying the notes.

Each note or memorandum, as made, can then be slipped into its proper place in the box, and should bave its title plainly marked near its upper edge, so that the sev eral titles can all be read by turning the leaves back as you would a file of bills or letters.

Some of these blank cards can be carried on the person, in a pocket book, and the notes made thereon transferred to the box ; for the box itself, on account of its size and shape, is not handily portable.

The advantage of thissystem of preserv- ing notes will be three-fold: First, the notes

are always self-indexing; each memo- randum can be inserted in its proper

place, as made, without at all disturbing or disarranging the others. Second, the notes are capable of unlimited more box tity

growth ;

can be provided, and the enlarged as the

of matter demands; and the

cards increasing quan


3 tem, faithfully kept up through a lifetime of experience, would not fail to form a valuable cyclopedia of knowledge of any branch of the mechanical Third, any momorandum becoming obso- lete or found to be incorrect, may be re-


moved from the collection without marring the work. Temporary memorandums may thus be filed, and when they have served their purpose, taken out and thrown away.

Any article found in print, too lengthy to be copied on the cards, may be merely re- ferred to by putting its title and the book or paper in which it is found, on a card of the collection, and the said book or paper kept in library, or on file, convenient for refer- ence.

Thus the arrangement becomes a general index and catalogue to the library as well as a repository for unpublished information obtained verbally or practically.

The cards can be made of any size to suit the taste. It will be most have them narrow enough to go in an ordi- nary pocket-book, say 314” wide by 6” long.

this collect- ing and preservation particularly for the benefit of those about starting in mechani- cal pursuits, believing in the importance of

convenient to


I suggest method of note

beginning anything of this kind ona basis

that will admit of unlimited enlargement,

without thatinevitable confusion

that the ordinary note-book re-

sults in after a few years’ use. ———-__ >

Shipbuilding Improvements on the Clyde.

According to Hngineering, an improvement in ship construc- tion which is coming into use on the Clyde is that of edge-to- edge plating, with butt straps, filling pieces. That mode of plating was originally

instead of

suggested by the late James R. Napier, but it is only now that itis being appreciated according to its merits.

Amongst the most striking noveltiesat present being worked out, are three vessels forming the pioneers of a new fleet of cargo-carrying steamers to sail New

of which is in

between and York, the first process of construction by Dobie & Co,



Messrs, These vessels are to be steamers of great size, having a carrying capacity of 5,000tons of dead weight on a much less draught than has hitherto been the practice. These vessels are to be constructed wholly of steel, as also their boilers—two sets of five each—and the cranks and most of the shafts and other partsof the engines, The boilers in this case are somewhat of the locomotive type, and are to have a working pressure of 125 lbs. per square inch; indeed, those which are intended for the first steamer of the fleet have already been proved up to 250 Ibs. per square inch, The engines are of the ‘‘ steeple” type, the original form of which was designed some- where about fifty years ago by David Na- pier. It is confidently anticipated that very high results will be obtained by these en

vines and boilers, as also by the vessels in which they are to be fitted.

Mild steel is now being most extensively used in the construction of boilers, and not only are the shells being made of that ma terial, but some engineering firms are like- wise employing it for the furnaces; while two or three firms are even using steel in the form of corrugated flues, and it is ex pected that this adaptation will soon be- come general, Out of 88 boilers, which Messrs. J. & G. Thomson are making for the Cunard steamers, no fewer than 29 are being made of steel; and Messrs. Howden & Co. have about 40 boilers in hand, all building or to be built of steel. One emi nent firm asserts that in steam boilers made by them, and under their occasional inspec- tion, there is an entire absence of any ap pearance of corrosion, which would have been certain to have shown in iron boilers used during the same period under similar circumstances.

Turbines on Horizontal Shafts.

Water wheels of various forms have been used on horizontal shafts as well as on ver- tical ones for some time; but herewith we illustrate a new form of mounting for the Risdon turbine, constructed in a particularly strong and durable manner on horizontal | shafts. The smaller cut represents a sin- | gle wheel mounted horizontally, and the | larger cut represents a wheel on each side of a box, both discharging into one tube.

The wheels here represented are mounted on iron boxes and with iron discharge tubes —the whole within a wooden penstock.

The mode of construction may vary to suit local conditions, or ideas of users. They can be mounted all in iron, or all in wood, or the two combined as represented. It is not claimed by the builders that mounting turbine wheels in this manner is calculated to give more power out of the same consumption of water, than would be obtained by mounting the wheels on a ver- tical shaft; but the claim is, that in many situations it affords many advantages.

By using a horizontal shaft and placing the water wheel shaft some distance above tail water, the whole effect due to the head can be obtained by using an air-tight tube for a discharge tube, the lower end of which is immersed in the standing tail water. This discharge tube is familiarly known as a draught tube, the use of whichis well known and the value well understood.

This mode of setting the wheel then ad- mits of placing a pulley directly on the water-wheel shaft and communicating mo- tion directly to the line shaft by means of a leather belt. This, then, saves the first cost as well as the maintenance of gear wheels, avoids all the jar and noise that gearing occesions, dispenses with the loss of power caused by using gears, and does not require so strong anarrangement of shafts, bearings and foundations as would be nec- essary when using gears. The bearings are all on horizontal shafts, and every one using turbines and machinery will well understand how much easier it is to keep an ordinary shafting box in position and good condition, than it is to keep the wooden foot of a tur- bine in order, when it supports a turbine running on a vertical shaft.

It is a well-known fact that no turbine will give the same percentage of the power of the water consumed when discharging half of the water of its full capacity, that it will when discharging its full capacity. This is familiarly known as “loss of per- centage at part gate.”

This loss of percentage is greatly avoided by using two or more of these turbines on one shaft, or to communicate motion to one shaft.

Then, as the volume of the stream dimin- ishes or the resistance to be overcome

varies, a gate on one wheel can be partly or wholly closed, so as to use what water is to be used at full gate or nearly so, thereby getting the most power out of it.

The gates of these turbines work easily, and it is much easier to make this variation by moving a gate and letting a wheel run idle on the shaft, than it is to resort to the usual mode of shifting heavy clutches or throwing wheels out of gear, when it is nec- essary to reduce the power or consumption of water to any great degree.

By means of suitable man-holes the whole of this apparatus can be examined at any time, conveniently. Itis easily keptin order and efficient in operation.

These wheels are made by T. H. Risdon & Co., Mount Holly, New Jersey.


A stock company with about $200,000 capital is talked of at Windsor, Ont., to engage in the manufacture of agricultural implements. It is said that at least $150,000 worth of agricultural implements have been sold in Nova Scotia in one year.

Se ene

The total amount of ,time lost by the Lewiston, Me., factories, by short water last fall amounted in money value to $45,000 in wages, out of a total annual disbursement


Compromising in the Machine Business.


A machinist who honestly plies his voca- tion knows more about compromising than our political fathers knew thirty years ago. It took considerable compromising to run the government machinery about that time, but it takes more to run an ordinary machine shop to-day. This com- promising spirit in the machine business don’t begin anywhere in par- ticular, ard it don’t leave off anywhere in general. It isa sort of ubiquitous, all-pervading sentiment, cropping out in the man- agement, fastening itself on the draughtsman, get- ting a big hold of the foreman and the pattern maker, and there is enough of it left to go around with every jour- neyman, and it hasn’t petered out when it reaches the last appren- tice. Ifthereisa foundry connected with the es- tablishment it gets a big grip there, and it has the free run of every boiler shopin the country. It isn’t avice. It isn’t a disease. You can’t fortify against it, or quarantine it, or stamp | it out, or do anything with it but humor it. It isn’t a negative luxury; it is a positive necessity, and like any other necessity knows no law. There isn’t a single product of an establishment in the country that don’t bear its imprint—at least if there is, it is so poor in quality that there isn’t further room for acompromise. If I built steam engines, or machine tools, or mining machinery; or, if I made shafting with couplings shrunk

enya li Mt i

= 1



AY, = =

on, or screwed on, or pressed on, or pounded on, or clamped on, or pinned on; or if I welded it up with solid lengths of 700 feet; or, if I manufactured steam-engine indica- tors, or steam gauges, or coffee mills, or apple peelers; or if I didn’t make or build or manufacture any of these, but something else, I wouldn't advertise my product as per- fect. I wouldn’t advertise it as the best I knew how to make, or build, or manufac- ture, because some country blacksmith would get hold of it some day and demonstrate that there were too many things I didn’t

of two and a half millions.

know. On the contrary I should consider


the propriety of advertising my particular product as a compromise.

If I wanted to buy any of these products I would rather not buy from a party who advertised perfection. [should always think he compromised with his conscience. I

don’t believe a first-class machinist ever built

cylindrical. cause they run easier and cooler. good investment for the party who builds the engine, and it is a good investment for the party who buys it.

[Aprit 2, 188]

It pays to so grind them, be- It is a

You can’t compromise much with such a

a first-class steam engine, who wouldn't like to build the next one differently :—that is



better. I believe all the same that a good many steam engines are built quite as well as the best interests of all parties demand. I don’t believe a poor machinist ever built a miserable old clap-trap engine, that he wouldn't like to build the next one differ- ently :—that is, poorer. One manufacturer strikes a balance between an ordinary fair product: not so good as he likes to manu- facture, nor so good as it 1s to the interest of the user to buy, and something so fine and refined that no man can afford to buy; and the result is a happy man. He crowds the world along to- wards using some- thing better this year than it did last year; and next year he will crowd it along towards using something better than it does this year. He don’t do what he would like to do by any means, but he likes to do what he is doing all thesame. He makes

the best compro- mise he can_ be- tween his own

ideal,and something